EXODUS DMC

korea

Overview



Korea at a glance

Korea's 5000 year history makes it one of the oldest Asian cultures, despite its being less familiar to Westerners than its neighbors China and Japan. Korea developed its own distinctive culture which became even more strongly preserved during the monarchy's era of the Hermit Kingdom. Later, under the Choson dynasty, it became known as the Land of the Morning Calm. The title was most suited to South Korea because of its spellbinding natural beauty of picturesque high mountains, clear waters and its splendid tranquility particularly in the morning which further confirmed the title “Land of the morning calm”.

The foundation legend of Korea based on the mythology of Dangun is deeply embedded in Korean culture. Archeological evidence shows that the Korean peninsula has been inhabited from the early paleolithic era, primarily along the coastal regions. Neolithic culture first appeared on the Korean Peninsula around 8,000 BC. People of this period did primary farming and stock farming as well as fishing, and began to make polished stone implements and potteries. The potteries of this period are early plain coarse pottery, pottery with applique clay decoration and comb-patterned pottery. In general, people lived on the coast of sea or big river, or on islands. The dwelling sites, tombs and shell mounds of this period remain. In Hupo-ri, Uljin, bones of more than forty people covered with 180 stone axes were found in natural pit. It is a very rare example of mass bone burial.

Bronze culture of Korea began with the southward advance of Yemac race lived in Manjuria and Mongolia around the tenth century BC. Bronzeware, polished stone implements and various plain coarse potteries were used at that time. The forms of tombs are dolmens, stone cist, jar coffin and pit tombs. As productivity grew with the progress of farming and stock farming, the classes began to be formed in the society. The people lived in large villages on plane or low hills near the river. Rice has been excavated from the dwelling sites, suggesting rice farming had already begun in this period.

When steel was utilized for the first time in the third and fourth centuries B.C., simple implements like axes and chisels were mainly cast. Some two hundred years later, ironware was widely produced and used in society. The use of hard and sharp ironware enabled them to make steel axes, hoes, shovels, weeder-plows, sickles, and hand knives for everyday life. Intensified conflicts and clashes among different groups regarding the distribution of goods were often caused by increased production with a spread of ironware. Quite naturally, as offensive weapons such as various kinds of swords, spears and arrowheads, and defensive weapons like shields, headpieces, and amours were developed, the outcome of wars was largely decided by the superiority of steel weapons. The growth of productive power and wars and the integration among groups led to the emergence of ancient states such as Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, and Gaya.

Three monarchial states like Silla, Goguryeo and Baekje lasted until Silla put two other kingdoms under her rule in mid-7th century. Unified Silla, being more aristocratic society, was flourished with Buddhism culture and numerous temples and pagodas were built in and around the capital, a charming city of Gyeongju today. In AD 935, Goryeo, which is dominated by celadon porcelain, replaced the Unified Silla and new rulers were to preside over 400 years until Yi Seonggye founded Joseon dynasty in 1392. In 1592 began the devastating invasion by the Japanese armies under Hideyoshi. No sooner had the Japanese retreated than Korea found herself in another delicate position between the struggling Ming and Manchu powers of China. The Manchu armies invaded Korea twice, in 1627 and 1636, culminating in King Injo's surrender after a 44-day siege at South fortress near Seoul. Following these Manchu invasions Korea retreated into a stringent policy of Isolationism and became known as the "Hermit Kingdom". The dynasty ended with the abdication of King Sunjong, the 27th ruler of Joseon dynasty and Japanese colonized Korea for 36 years until Korea won the independence in 1945. Religious freedom is guaranteed in Korea, and now Christianity has developed a vast following since its introduction in the late 18th century though Confucianism and Buddhism were dominant in the past.

The Korean society experienced unprecedented changes in the past century. Colonial rule under Japanese imperialism, liberation, division of the north and south, modernization, industrialization and globalization led the popular class to experience despair and frustration, as well as overcoming such difficulties and achieving a sense of accomplishment. The development of material culture, science, and technology in Korea guided the emergence of the popular class as the main source of production and consumption. In this process, widely accepted western lifestyles and values have transformed the pattern of food, clothing and housing as well as the overall lifestyle of the Korean people. During the past century, despite the growing pains in the aftermath of the rapid changes, the popular class arouse as the maters of their own destiny.

Land
Korea lies in the north eastern part of the Asian continent. A peninsula thrusting between China and Japan, Korea has a terrain that can be most beautiful but also rugged Jagged mountains pushed up from the sea are criss-crossed by rivers and lush green grasses. It is roughly 1000 kms long and 216 kms wide at its narrowest point. Mountains cover 70% of the land mass making Korea one of the most mountainous regions in the world. The Korean peninsula is 223,608㎢, almost the same size as the U.K. or Romania. The administrative area of the Republic of Korea is 100,188㎢, slightly larger than Hungary or Portugal and a little smaller than Iceland. The mountain range runs the full length of the east coast and plains form the central region and slope to the western coast. Korea has a varied terrain, though about 70 per cent of the territory is mountainous with large number of rivers and streams. Korea has 1,021 mountains and 3,300 islands. Only 20% of the land is arable, and of this half is given to rice cultivation, with spots of acreage devoted to cattle grazing. It is also a principal supplier of ginseng root, said to have medicinal properties. Korea is a peninsula set in some of the world's best fishing waters, so it is no wonder that seafood, fresh and dried, is the primary protein source for the Korean people. Baekdusan located in the north Korea is the highest (2,744m), and the second highest is Hallasan (1,950m) on Jejudo, the largest island in Korea. The longest river is Apnokgang (790km) in the north, and the second longest is Nakdong river (521km) in the south.

People
They are descendants of several Mongol tribal groups which migrated from the north in the prehistoric eras and have now been fused into one separate, homogeneous group, independent of their neighbors to the east and west but with traits distinctive of both the Chinese and Japanese. Koreans speak Korean language and their writing form is called , which was first invented in the mid-15th century by King Sejong. The Korean might be considered the most friendly of all Asian people. They have keen sense of humor balanced by earthy common sense. Quick to laugh and equally quick to show anger. Koreans are graceful yet robust and noted for their endurance under the most adverse conditions.

Language and words
Koreans speak Korean which is a phonetic language. The Korean language is classified into the Ural-Altaic language group. Approximately 80 million people speak Korean worldwide. Although classified as a language isolate, many theories have been proposed to explain the origin of Korean. The most prominent of these link Korean to the Altaic languages, a family that includes Turkish, Mongolian, Finnish and the Tungusic languages of Siberia, in lacking certain grammatical elements, including articles, fusional morphology and relative pronouns. Others would argue for the inclusion of Uralic languages (Hungarian and Finnish) and Japanese in this macro family. Some linguists support the hypothesis that Korean can be classified as an Altaic language or as a relative of proto-Altaic. The language does not have articles, and smaller details of meaning are usually conveyed through affixing small modifiers to a whole word.

Honorifics are critically important in Korean - a person must modify their speech based on their own social status in comparison to the person on the other end of the conversation, or else come off as extremely rude. There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Korean, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation. Unlike honorifics - which are used to show respect towards the referent (the person spoken of) - speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience (the person spoken to). The highest six levels are generally grouped together as Jondaenmal (존댓말), while the lowest level is called Banmal (반말) in Korean. Nowadays, younger-generation speakers no longer feel obligated to lower their usual regard toward the referent. It is common to see younger people talk to their older relatives with Banmal. This is not out of disrespect, but instead it shows the intimacy and the closeness of the relationship between the two speakers. Transformations in social structures and attitudes in today's rapidly changing society have brought about change in the way people speak.

When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. Generally, someone is superior in status if he/she is an older relative, a stranger of roughly equal or greater age, or an employer, teacher, customer, or the like. Someone is equal or inferior in status if he/she is a younger stranger, student, employee or the like. Nowadays, there are special endings which can be used on declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences; and both honorific or normal sentences. They are made for easier and faster use of Korean. Honorifics in traditional Korea were strictly hierarchical. The caste and estate systems possessed patterns and usages much more complex and stratified than those used today. The intricate structure of the Korean honorific system flourished in traditional culture and society. Honorifics in contemporary Korea are now used for people who are psychologically distant. Honorifics are also used for people who are superior in status. For example, older relatives, people who are older, teachers, and employers.

Koeran use Korean alphabet, Hangul. Each character of Hangul represents its own sound. Hangul was invented in 1443 in a document titled Hunminjeongeum by King Sejong and promulgated in 1446. His invention principle of Hangul expressed in his book Hunminjeongum is as follow. "Being of foreign origin Chinese characters are incapable or capturing uniquely Korean meanings. Therefore, many common people have no way to express their thoughts and feelings. Out of my sympathy for their difficulties I have invented a set of 28 letters. The letters are very easy to learn and it is my fervent hope that they improve the quality of life of all people." However the privileged aristocrats continued to use Chinese characters thus Hangul faced opposition by the literary elite. Having survived harsh time, Hangul finally became the official script of Korea following the Gabo Reform of 1894.

Government
Democracy with president elected to a single 5-year term by direct popular vote, and the suffrage is 19 years of age. Under Korea's presidential system, the president performs his executive functions through the State Council made up of 15 to 30 members and presided over by the President, who is solely responsible for deciding all important government policies. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by the National Assembly. As the principal executive assistant to the President, the Prime Minister supervises the administrative ministries and manages the Office for Government Policy Coordination under the direction of the President. The Prime Minister also has the power to deliberate major national policies and to attend the meetings of the National Assembly.

Legislature
The national assembly is composed of 299 members serving four-year terms. Out of 299 members, 243 are elected by popular vote from local constituencies, while the remaining 56 members obtain their seats through a proportional representation system in which seats are allocated to each political party that has gained 3 percent or more of all valid votes or five or more seats in the local constituency election. The system is aimed at reflecting the voices of people from different walks of life while enhancing the expertise of the Assembly. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be at least 25 years of age. One candidate from each electoral district is selected by majority vote. Two types of legislative sessions are provided for, regular and special. The regular session, limited to 100 days, is convened once a year from September through December and special sessions, limited to 30 days, may be convened upon the request of the President or one-fourth or more of the members of the Assembly. The President may request the convening of a special session, clearly specifying the reason and the period of the session.

Judiciary
The Judiciary of Korea consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts, Patent Court, Family Court, Administrative and local Courts. The courts exercise jurisdiction over civil, criminal, administrative, electoral, and other judicial matters, while also overseeing affairs related to real estate registrations, family registrations, financial holdings, and court officials. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial tribunal. It hears appeals on cases rendered by lower courts. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly. Other justices are appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Chief Justice. The term of office for the Chief Justice is six years and is not renewable. The Chief Justice must retire from office at the age of 70. The term for other justices is six years. Though they may be re-appointed in accordance with legal provisions, they must retire from office when they reach the age of 65. The High Courts hear civil, criminal and administrative appeals cases rendered by district, administrative courts and family courts and try special cases designated by law. The Patent Court reviews decisions rendered by the Patent Office. The Supreme Court is the final tribunal over patent disputes. District Courts are located in Seoul and in the following 13 cities: Incheon, Uijeongbu, Suwon, Chuncheon, Daejeon, Cheongju, Daegu, Busan, Changwon, Ulsan, Gwangju, Jeonju and Jeju. The Family Court is empowered to hear all cases involving matrimonial, juvenile or other domestic matters. The Administrative Court handles administrative cases only.

Economy
Korea, once known to be one of the world's poorest agrarian societies, has undertaken economic development since 1962. In less than four decades, it achieved what has become known as the "Miracle on the Hang River", an incredible process that dramatically transformed the Korean economy while marking a turning point in Korea's history. Korea is the world's largest shipbuilding nation; for semiconductors, the third largest; digital electronics, the fourth. Korean textile, steel and petrochemicals are fifth in terms of volume, and automobiles are also fifth in the world. Korea's shipbuilding sector has been the industry leader for the past four years, accounting for 40% of the world's total shipbuilding orders. As a major auto manufacturer, Korea produces over 3.8 million vehicles annually. Major industrial products are Semiconductors, Automobiles, Ships, Consumer electronics, Mobile telecommunication equipment, steel and chemicals, whereas major import items are industrial raw materials such as crude oil and natural minerals, general consumer products, foodstuffs and goods such as machinery and electronic and transportation equipment. Incheon International Airport is poised to become a leading logistics and transportation hub in Northeast Asia. In 2006, it handled 2.34 million tons of international air cargo, becoming the second leading airport in the world in terms of air cargo volume. Container ships from Korea ply international sea lanes to the world ports. Port cargo volume climbed to 17.48 million TEU in 2007. In particular, Busan Port handled 12.04 million TEU in 2006, ranking fifth in the world for three consecutive years in terms of volume of containers handled.

Education
Koreans throughout history have had an unquenchable thirst for education which was initially motivated by the old Confucian school of learning where scholarly attainment could be achieved only through competitive examinations. Modern education, first introduced by the Western missionaries in the 19th century, was deeply influenced by the Western system. A group of missionaries from the Presbyterian and Methodist Mission led by Horace G, Underwood and Henry G. Appenzeller opened mission schools in Seoul before the turn of the century. Baeje and Gyeongsin were the first boys' high school while Ehwa Hakdang became the first girls' high school in Korea. During the same period Yonhi college (later to become Yonsei University) was founded in Seoul and Sungsil college in Pyeongyang, both sponsored by Presbyterian missionary foundation. The development of modern education was interrupted by Japanese colonialism that lasted 36 years until 1945. Education was limited as only 30% of the primary school children attended school and one out of thirty enrolled in high schools. They were forced to speak Japanese, adopt Japanese names and meet the educational requirements of the militaristic government. The liberation of Korea in 1945 was a turning point for Korean education as it shifted from a totalitarian approach to a democratic one.

Korea today has adopted a school system that begins with elementary school for children of ages 6 through 11. Middle school is for children of ages 12 through 14, and high school for teens of 15 to 17. Students can then continue on to university from age offering B.A.'s and B.S.'s. Primary school education is compulsory and free, though pre-school kindergarten education is not a part of formal school system. There are also graduate study programs for M.A., M.S. and doctoral candidates. There are also two- to three-year junior colleges and vocational colleges. Elementary schooling is compulsory with an enrollment rate of nearly 100%. Three more years of compulsory middle school education have been implemented nationwide since 2004.

People with disabilities may obtain an education in special schools as well as special and general classes within general schools. More and more general schools are appointing special education support staff and building facilities for students with disabilities. As of 2007, there were 144 special schools for persons with disabilities in the nation. These included seven for emotionally disturbed students, 12 for students with visual impairments, 18 for students with hearing impairments, 18 for students with physical disabilities and 89 for students with limited mental development.
There are over 5,900 elementary schools, 3,170 middle schools, 2,310 high schools and 390 colleges and universities. In addition, there are 40 alternative schools and 46 foreign schools throughout Korea.

Housing
Industrialization in Korea proceeded in parallel with urbanization. In 1960, only 27.7% of Korea's population lived in cities. In 2000, 88.3% of Korea's population were urban dwellers. But this trend has receded, and 81.5% of Korea's population lived in cities in 2005. This rapid population growth in urban areas led to a housing shortage and spiraling land prices in cities. In order to solve the housing shortage and stabilize housing costs, increasing the supply of land available for residential construction. Due to the limited landmass and mountainous terrain housing developments in Korea are primarily high rise apartment complexes which consist of 5 - 20 buildings per development. Although apartment architecture has improved over the past decade the majority of apartments in Korea still have a uniform look and feel. In 2010 it was estimated that more than 80% of the Korean population lived in apartment buildings ranging from 5 to 60 stories.

Social security
Various systems related to social security have been implemented since the late 1980s. These include medical insurance and medical aid to cover the entire population in principle, with an introduction of National Pension Service in 1988, and Unemployment Insurance System in 1995. The government has thus provided the basis for building a comprehensive social safety net. All persons who reside in Korea and are aged between 18 and 60 are automatically included in the National Pension Service system, and this regardless of their income. While the primary goal of the above systems is to provide minimum guarantees to the economically active population, there also are a variety of welfare programs for economically inactive people. These public subsidy programs consist mainly of two parts: subsidies for living expenses and medical assistance.

The Four Social Insurance Programs
The Four Social Insurance Programs
Source: Four Social Insurance Program

Media
Korea's first modern newspaper, the Dongnip Sinmun (Independence Newspaper), was established in 1896 by Dr. Seo Jae-pil. The Dongnip Sinmum was a bilingual paper with 300 copies of four tabloid pages printed three times a week, the first three pages in Korean and the last page in English. The Chosun Ilbo and the Dong-A Ilbo are the two oldest newspapers in Korea, both inaugurated in 1920 in the wake of the March First Independence Movement against Japanese colonial rule. Both newspapers are known for their independent editorial policies and considerable influence on public opinion. There are two major news agencies in Korea, Yonhap News and Newsis.

In December 1961, KBS-TV was inaugurated by the government as the first full-scale television service in Korea. TBC-TV, began operation in December 1964. MBC-TV, in August 1969. During a period of media mergers in the late 1980s, TBC-TV was taken over by KBS and renamed as KBS-2. EBS broadcasts extracurricular educational programs for students and also cultural programs and documentaries. SBS (the Seoul Broadcasting System) began broadcasting under private management in 1990. Cable TV started experimental services in 1990, and about 70 cable channels broadcast programs for 77 subject areas. Korea has put three telecommunications satellites into orbit since 1995 and secured 168 satellite channels to broadcast programs. Korea Digital Broadcasting (KDB) launched a satellite broadcasting service in March 2002, and provides diverse channel services. Major foreign networks are Arirang TV, and KBS worldnet.

Radio broadcasting in Korea started in 1927, when the Japanese government established a station in Seoul. The U.S. military government in Korea subsequently took it over and later formed the Korea Broadcasting System (KBS). This was the only radio station in the country until 1954, when the Christian Broadcasting System (CBS), operated chiefly with contributions from churches, started educational and religious programming along with news and entertainment broadcasts. In December 1956, another Christian organization, the Evangelical Alliance Mission, inaugurated the Far East Broadcasting Station in Incheon. The Seoul city-operated TBS (Traffic Broadcasting Station) was set up in June, 1990, followed by the government-operated EBS (Educational Broadcasting Station). Pyeonghwa Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) for Catholics. There are presently a total of 202 radio broadcasters in the Republic of Korea; 153 FM, 47 AM, and two shortwave services for Koreans overseas. (Source : www. Korea.net)

National flag
The Korean flag is called Taegeukgi. The blue and red, divided equally in the circle, represent the oriental ideas of Yin and Yang, dual forces that cannot be separated. It is believed that the two forces make everything in the world circulate and harmonize for new creation and growth. The upper red section represents the proactive cosmic forces of the Yang. Conversely, the lower blue section represents the responsive cosmic forces of the Yin. The two forces embody the concepts of continual movement, balance, and harmony that characterize the sphere of infinity.
The circle is surrounded by four trigrams, one in each corner. Each trigram symbolizes one of the four universal elements: heaven, earth, fire, and water. The trigram in the upper left called Geon, where the Yang is the strongest, is a symbol of the justice of heaven (Heaven, Spring, East, Benevolence).The one in the lower right, called Gon, means abundance, as the Um is the strongest (Earth, Summer, West, Righteousness). Gam, the one in the upper right, express the wisdom (Water, Winter, North, Wisdom), while I (or Ee), on the lower left, signifies light (Fire, Autumn, South, Propriety). The white square background of the national flag symbolizes light and purity and reflects Korean's love for peace. National flower is Rose of Sharon, and the bird is Magpie Korean look upon it as bringing good news.

Taegeuk
Taegeuk refers to the ultimate reality from which all things and values originate according to oriental philosophy. The idea of Taegeuk is filled with a profound philosophy of truth. According to this philosophy, Taegeuk refers to the primitive status of the universe, that is, the dark and black chaos where heaven and earth are not separated. Hence, if Taegeuk moves, the force of Yang arises, but if not, that of Um grows. The creation and movement of sun, moon, and stars including the changes of heat into cold and day into night, are influenced by these two forces. All natural phenomena such as rain, wind, thunder, and dew and related to one another in the four elements; water, fire, stone, and earth. Yang is the extreme opposite of Um. but they cannot be parted. The universe is made by circulation and harmony of the two. When the two forces rotate, the four seasons changes in turns, and the world grows with their harmony. Thus, the world develops with incessant changes. Taegeuk is the source of every life at the same time it has a metaphysical existence.

The National anthem


1. Dong hae mul gwa Baek du san i Ma ru go dal to rok Ha nu nim i
(Until the East Sea's waves and dry, (and) Mt. Paektusan worn away)
bo u - ha sa U ri na ra man se.
(God watch o'er our land forever! Our Korea Manse!)

Refrain:
Mu-gung hwa Sam-cheol li
(Rose of Sharon, thousands miles of ranges and river land!)

Hwa ryeo gang-san Dae han sa ram Dae han-u ro Gi ri bo jeon ha se
(Guarded by her people, ever may Korea stand!)

2. Nam san wi e Jeo so na mu Cheol gap ul du reun deut Ba ram seo ri
(Like that Mt. Namsan amored pine, standing on duty still)
Bul byeon-ham eun Wu ri gi sang il se
(Wind or frost, unchanging ever, be our resolute will)

3. Ga eul ha nul Gong hwal han de Nop Ggo gu reum up ssi Bal gekun dal eun
(In autumn's, arching evening sky, crystal, and cloudless blue)
Wu ri-ga seum Il pyeon dan sim il se
(Be the radiant moon our spirit, steadlast, single, and true)

4. I gi sang gwa i mam u ro Chung seong eul da ha yeo Gwoe ro u na
(With such a will, (and) such a spirit, loyalty, heart and hand)
Jeul geo-u na Na ra sa rang ha se
(Let us love, come grief, come gladness, this, beloved our land)

Climate
Winters in the north can be harsh and severe, while the southern climate is hot and subtropical. Korea has a continental climate from a temperate standpoint and a monsoon climate from a precipitation standpoint. Spring (March-May) is little chilly but soon becomes mild. In the beginning of March however, the temperature is rather cold. New shoots sprout and wild flowers bud. Nevertheless, the temperature difference between day and night is large. There are still many spots where lingering snow and ice are found, especially in shady areas. In April, the mountains become carpets of full blossom of wild flowers. Summer (June-August) is sticky hot, often accompanied with a month-long monsoon from mid-June. Autumn (September-November) is crisp and refreshing, however in early September typhoon often hits southern part of Korea. Autumn always brings some of nature's most stunning scenery. Mountains are covered with brilliant crimson leaves, sharply contrasting with the clear blue skies. The beautiful fall foliage, coupled with the mild weather, is just one of the reasons why many choose to travel around the country during the autumn months. Winter (December-February) is dry and freezing cold. Spring and autumn are relatively short, while summer and winter seem to move slowly.

Average figures from 1981 to 2010 based on the 15th day of each month, but precipitation is based on total amount for the month
T : Temperature (Centigrade) P : Precipitation V : Velocity of Wind H : Humidity S : Sunny hours
To convert centigrade to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 and add 32

 

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Seoul                        
T (℃)

-2.5

0.7

5.9

12.1

17.1

22.5

24.4

26.3

21.4

15.29

7.4

0.0

P (mm)

20.7

26.4

26.3

63.7

109.1

137.1

394.5

362.1

164.4

52.2

52.3

22.0

V (m/s)

2.3

2.5

2.7

2.9

2.5

2.2

2.4

2.0

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

H (%)

61.1

56.3

57.6

54.8

61.9

65.3

80.2

74.9

68.7

65.2

61.4

58.8

S (hr)

4.9

5.5

5.8

7.0

6.69

6.7

3.5

5.2

6.1

6.2

5.0

5.0

Cheolwon                        
T (℃)

-5.5

-2.2

3.5

10.2

15.7

21.2

23.2

24.6

18.9

12.0

4.1

-3.0

P (mm)

19.9

24.6

40.7

64.2

104.2

140.0

401.4

341.2

139.9

43.8

48.2

21.6

V (m/s)

3.1

1.7

2.0

2.4

3.2

1.8

2.0

1.7

1.8

1.5

1.6

1.4

H (%)

54.3

64.6

62.7

57.5

661

69.8

81.8

79.1

76.7

73.2

70.2

68.5

S (hr)

5.6

6.0

5.6

6.7

6.5

6.7

3.4

5.9

6.1

6.0

4.8

5.1

Sokcho                        
T (℃)

-0.5

1.6

5.6

11.5

15.5

18.8

22.4

24.0

19.9

15.5

8.4

2.2

P (mm)

43.2

49.7

56.4

63.0

97.6

118.1

246.4

294.9

225.5

90.5

76.4

38.4

V (m/s)

3.1

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.0

2.4

2.3

2.1

2.5

2.7

3.0

3.2

H (%)

54.3

56.6

61.4

60.9

68.2

79.1

82.6

84.0

78.4

64.1

55.4

47.7

S (hr)

5.6

5.8

5.8

7.0

7.2

5.6

4.0

4.8

5.6

5.5

5.6

6.1

Daejeon                        
T (℃)

-0.8

1.4

6.8

12.8

17.8

22.4

24.5

26.1

21.6

14.5

6.9

1.4

P (mm)

28.6

36.2

57.0

78.0

75.3

108.5

207.7

328.9

165.5

51.6

41.9

26.9

V (m/s)

1.5

2.0

2.1

2.4

2.0

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.1

1.5

1.6

1.4

H (%)

66.6

56.6

58.4

52.5

62.4

65.4

78.6

76.7

74.7

69.5

64.6

66.2

S (hr)

4.7

4.0

6.1

7.7

6.9

6.7

3.8

5.4

5.8

6.8

5.2

5.2

Andong                        
T (℃)

-2.1

0.6

5.4

12.0

16.6

21.5

23.8

25.0

19.8

13.6

6.1

-0.2

P (mm)

20.0

28.8

46.2

67.8

93.8

137.7

244.9

209.7

131.4

38.0

30.3

16.8

V (m/s)

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

1.8

1.7

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.4

1.6

1.9

H (%)

63.4

58.4

60.6

54.8

64.8

68.9

81.6

79.3

77.8

74.0

67.8

63.2

S (hr)

3.5

6.4

6.0

7.7

6.7

6.9

3.8

5.1

5.8

5.9

5.5

5.7

Daegu                        
T (℃)

0.5

3.4

7.9

14.1

18.3

23.0

25.4

26.4

21.7

16.5

9.0

2.6

P (mm)

20.2

29.9

48.2

62.1

82.4

146.4

221.1

228.1

153.2

38.9

29.2

16.3

V (m/s)

2.8

2.8

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.8

2.5

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.4

2.7

H (%)

55.7

52.2

55.1

50.6

59.8

63.3

76.2

74.1

71.8

62.9

59.4

55.4

S (hr)

5.8

6.6

6.0

7.6

6.9

6.7

41

5.1

5.6

6.6

5.7

6.1

Jeonju                        
T (℃)

-0.5

1.9

6.5

12.1

17.3

22.5

25.3

26.6

21.6

15.5

8.1

2.0

P (mm)

32.8

42.2

56.6

76.1

94.3

170.7

297.3

271.2

134.4

55.3

49.7

32.0

V (m/s)

1.4

1.6

1.8

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.7

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.4

1.5

H (%)

68.6

64.8

64.3

59.0

66.6

68.9

79.5

76.8

74.4

70.2

68.8

67.4

S (hr)

4.5

5.6

5.6

7.5

6.4

6.3

3.6

4.9

6.1

6.3

5.0

4.3

Yeongcheon                        
T (℃)

-1.1

1.7

6.2

12.2

16.5

21.3

24.2

25.2

20.1

14.2

6.9

0.7

P (mm)

31.1

28.3

46.6

60.5

88.7

136.9

224.1

223.6

137.0

33.8

31.7

16.3

V (m/s)

1.2

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.8

1.7

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.7

2.2

H (%)

58.6

56.8

60.1

55.6

62.5

66.8

77.2

76.1

73.9

67.5

64.0

59.5

S (hr)

5.1

6.4

6.1

7.7

7.0

7.1

4.7

5.6

5.7

6.6

5.17

5.1

Mokpo                        
T (℃)

1.6

3.2

6.89

11.8

16.6

21.5

24.6

26.3

22.3

17.0

10.1

4.1

P (mm)

34.1

41.4

61.8

67.1

91.4

173.0

234.2

196.6

142.9

49.5

43.2

29.8

V (m/s)

4.5

4.6

4.4

4.0

3.6

3.0

3.5

3.1

3.3

3.7

4.1

4.4

H (%)

69.3

67.9

69.0

65.7

72.5

75.0

85.3

81.6

76.2

69.1

67.0

68.1

S (hr)

4.1

5.6

5.3

7.3

6.6

6.1

4.3

6.0

6.3

6.7

5.2

4.1

Busan                        
T (℃)

3.0

5.5

8.9

13.5

16.9

20.8

23.8

26.0

22.3

18.0

11.5

5.2

P (mm)

34.7

50.3

90.1

131.1

157.6

212.1

313.2

248.2

160.6

61.3

45.2

25.0

V (m/s)

3.7

3.7

3.9

3.9

3.6

3.1

3.9

3.7

3.7

3.2

3.4

3.6

H (%)

55.7

52.6

58.6

65.3

67.9

78.9

87.9

81.0

74.5

65.4

61.5

52.1

S (hr)

6.0

6.5

5.7

7.4

6.7

6.5

4.3

5.6

5.8

6.9

6.3

6.4

Jeju                        
T (℃)

5.6

6.8

9.5

13.4

17.3

21.2

25.9

26.9

22.9

18.4

12.8

7.9

P (mm)

64.7

64.4

85.2

70.8

95.7

184.9

236.5

269.3

221.4

82.1

62.3

48.1

V (m/s)

4.4

3.9

3.8

3.2

3.0

3.0

2.9

3.0

4.1

3.0

3.6

4.4

H (%)

66.8

65.0

66.6

63.3

71.3

76.2

78.0

78.0

74.5

65.8

64.3

65.0

S (hr)

1.9

4.3

4.7

6.9

6.3

5.8

5.9

5.7

5.5

6.2

3.9

2.3


Hallyu, the Korean Wave

Hallyu refers to the significant increase in popularity of the Korean culture around the world. It started with Korean TV dramas and has expanded to Korean films and music. Hallyu is a growing aspiration for Korean culture. It is not only about entertainment industry but also about fashion which known as a trendsetter style icon in the youth-dominated market. It goes beyond the love for television and movie stars. Hallyu is about appreciating the Korean culture portrayed through them, thus stimulating it to develop into more sophisticated cultural forms, which in turn, bringing it to a higher level.

Getting to Korea

By Air
Korea has nine international airports; Incheon, Gimpo, Gimhae, Jeju, Cheongju, Daegu, Yangyang, Muan, and Gwangju. There are about 3,900 flights weekly by international airlines connecting Korea from the world's major cities. Currently, 79 international airlines are in regular operation between Incheon and some 182 cities around the world. 22 cities including Vladivostok and Munchen operate direct flights to Gimhae. Jeju is connected from Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Guangzhou, and Taipei. Flights serve passengers from Beijing and Shanghai to both Daegu and Muan.

By Ferry
Shimonoseki, Hakata, Osaka, Hitakatsu and Izhara are the Japanese ports serving passengers to Busan. The Chinese ports to Incheon are Dalien, Tienjin, Yinggou, Dandong, Lianyunjiang, Qinhuangtao, Qingtao, Shidao, Yentai, and Weihai. The Russian port Zarubino to Sokcho.

Currency
Korean currency is Won. There are notes of 50,000, 10,000, 5,000, 1,000 and coins of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 denominations. Credit cards are widely accepted in the major cities. ATM for foreign cards is available at airports and throughout the country.

Time zone
Korean time is GMT + 9 all year round. Korea does not observe daylight saving time.

Business hours
Banks open from 09:00 to 16:00 from Monday through Friday. Office hours vary company to company from 08:00, 08:30 or 09:00 to 17:00, 17:30 or 18:00. More companies are closed on Saturdays. Shops open Monday to Saturday from 09:00 to 19:00, while, some shops open until late in the night. Department stores open from 10:30 to 20:00. Some shopping malls are from 10:30 to 23:00.

Public holidays
January 1 - New Year's Day
Lunar New Year's Day - dates vary
March 1 - Independence Movement Day
Buddha's birthday - date varies
May 5 - Children's Day
June 6 - Memorial Day
August 15 - Independence day
Chuseok - dates vary
October 3 - National Foundation Day
December 25 - Christmas

School holidays
Summer - From mid-July to the end of August
Winter - From Christmas to mid-February

Administrative units
Nine provinces (Gyeonggido, Gangwondo, Chungcheong Namdo, Chungcheong Bukdo, Gyeongsang Namdo, Gyeongsang Bukdo, Jeolla Namdo, Jeolla Bukdo, Jejudo), seven autonomous cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon), 77 cities and 47,000 villages. "Do" is a Korean suffix which means province or island. Jejudo is an island-province.

Getting around
With an excellent transportation network, you can get to every corner of the country using public transportation. Domestic air, super speed trains, regular trains, scheduled express buses serve passengers to and from the big cities and small towns. Intercity buses, city buses and taxies can be found everywhere. Subways are in Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Incheon, and Gwangju, Boat and ferry service are well established. Transportation fares are relatively cheap, and booking is not that difficult unless you are traveling during the peak times like Lunar New Year holidays, Chuseok or beach holidays.